1. Research Background
Since Mo Yan received the Nobel Prize in literature in 2012, the translator, Howard Goldblatt has drawn an increasing attention from all over the world. However, scholars only focus their attention on a small part of Howard Goldblatt’s translation. In recent years, quantities of studies have been made on the English version of Red Sorghum 《(红高粱》) and Wolf Totem (《狼图腾》), while studies on Goldblatt’s first translation on Chinese literature, Tales of Hulan River, is relatively few and limited.
The existing researches are conducted mainly from the perspective of culture, adaptation and selection, stylistics, etc. It is found that there are two articles examining the English translation of the Hulanhe Zhuan using postcolonial translation theories. The authors only focus on one aspect of postcolonial translation theories, hybridity. However, it’s safe to say that Goldblatt, as a translator from the strong culture, is influenced by the power differential and his translation, in some way, represents cultural hegemony. Therefore, a deeper analysis through probing into two aspects of postcolonial translation theories, the power differentials and hybridity is of great necessity.
2. Research Methodology
Postcolonial theory, which grows up and attracts the world’s attention in 1970s, mainly focuses on power and identity, criticizes cultural hegemony, introspects the complicated relations in the colonial systems and investigates the influence of colony to the present world. The postcolonial translation theory, established in the postcolonial critical context, is a series of research methods on translation.
Guided by this theory, this thesis tries to carry out a study on the postcolonial features in the English version of Hulanhe Zhuan and the translation strategies adopted by the translator through probing into specific examples from two angles of power differentials and hybridity. Just as Theo Herman holds that translation study is “an interplay of theoretical models and case studies” (Herman, 1985: 9), this thesis is based on both theory and case studies. Based on the examples collected from both the Chinese version and English version on linguistic and cultural levels, this thesis explores a qualitative-based investigation under the guidance of postcolonial translation theory and its application in the translation of Hulanhe Zhuan.
Chapter 1 Literature Review
1.1 Previous Studies on Hulanhe Zhuan
Since Hulanhe Zhuan came into being, it has attracted a lot of scholars devoting their studies to this novel. Particularly after 1980s, more and more studies on this novel have been carried out from varied angles. First, many domestic scholars focus their studies on the artistic features of Hulanhe Zhuan. Zhang Guozhen (张国祯, 1982), in his A Lyric Symphonic Poem of National Sorrow and Native Life—A Review of Hulanhe Zhuan, points out that enriched symbolism and lyricism are two essential methods of the novel.
In Dramatic Irony—On the Unique Qualities of Writing Style of Xiao Hong’s Novels, Ai Xiaoming (艾晓明, 2002) writes in detail about the stylistic features of Hulanhe Zhuan to reveal the dramatic irony in this novel, and he also emphasizes the dramatic irony must be paid enough attention to. Wen Guiliang (文贵良, 2007), in his Literary Chinese and Generation of Their Meaning in Hulanhe Zhuan, studies the features of Xiao Hong’s language.
He tries to find out how can these literary Chinese words give readers a sense of solitude that penetrates the flesh and blood to the bone. Based on this, Wen holds that Xiao Hong’s language, on one hand, carries on the tradition of vernacular Chinese, and on the other hand, creates Xiao Hong’s own feature. Zheng Li (郑莉, 2008), in her Unique Expression of Compassion and Understanding—A Brief Comment on Text Characteristics of Xiao Hong’s Novel Hulanhe Zhuan, focuses on how Xiao Hong uses her special expressive ability to create and complete Hulanhe Zhuan whose style is among novel, prose and poem. Zheng Li carries out her study on such aspects as the creative structure, the poetic language and the repetitive lyric art.
Other scholars, for instance, Xu Huihui (徐慧慧, 2011), Ye Yunjia (叶云佳, 2009) and Li Jun (李钧, 2012) attempt to study Hulanhe Zhuan from the perspective of aesthetics. Lu Zhining (卢志宁, 2010), Zhang Liwen (张丽文, 2011) and Wang Ke (王科, 2004) examine how Xiao Hong presents a sense of solitude and misery in her Hulanhe Zhuan.
1.2 Previous Studies on the English Version of Hulanhe Zhuan
Compared with the researches devoted to Xiao Hong’s Hulanhe Zhuan, the number of research papers on its English translation by a famous sinologist, Howard Goldblatt, is comparatively small. Some foreign scholars make some comments on Howard Goldblatt’s translation of this novel since its publication. In his translation, Goldblatt tries his best to transfer the charm of the original text. However, some target readers can’t fully appreciate the style of this novel. It is composed of trivial events and short, slow-pace and prose-like sentences and therefore, it’s quite different from the traditional Chinese novels. Theodore Huters’s (1981) comments on the translation of Hulanhe Zhuan are like this, “It must be admitted that the constant reiteration of trivial acts in Tales of Hulan River requires just such virtuoso technique to keep from sliding into outright tedium.
Though Goldblatt is an excellent translator, he cannot always replicate the intricate prose rhythms of the original.” However, some scholars appreciate Goldblatt’s selection of Xiao Hong’s novel and his translation. D. E. Pollard (1981) speaks highly of Goldblatt’s translation of Hulanhe Zhuan. He deems it as an excellent selection of works for translation, and a brave and generally successful try at execution. He said, “It is not only accurate, but positively pleases at times as an example of good writing in English.” (Pollard, 1981) As for the language in the English version of Hulanhe Zhuan, Joe C. Huang (1980) points out in his review in The China Quarterly that the translator has been both sensitive and faithful in his grappling with Xiao Hong’s extraordinary writing style punctuated with north-eastern dialect.
Chapter 3 Analysis of the English Version of Hulanhe Zhuan........ 20
3.1 Xiao Hong and Her Hulanhe Zhuan .... 20
3.2 Howard Goldblatt and Tales of Hulan River ..... 20
3.3 Power Differentials Manifested in Tales of Hulan River ........ 21
3.4 Hybridity Manifested in Tales of Hulan River ......... 33
3.5 Comments on Goldblatt’s Tales of Hulan River ....... 46
Chapter 3 Analysis of the English Version of Hulanhe Zhuan from the Perspective of Postcolonial Translation Theory
3.1 Xiao Hong and Her Hulanhe Zhuan
Xiao Hong, an influential women writer in Chinese literary world in the 20th century, is praised as one of “the four most talented women in the Republic of China” and “the Goddess of Chinese literary circles in 1930s”. Her works hold an important position in the development of Chinese modern literature. Her seemingly common writing techniques have symbolic significance and artistic value in many aspects. Hulanhe Zhuan, written by Xiao Hong in Hong Kong in 1942, the hardest phase of Anti-Japanese War, is a long novel with distinct features.
Writing in the mist of on war time, Xiao Hong focuses on an innocent child’s memory rather than war or rebellious spirit. Goldblatt commented it, “Xiao Hong has her own ideas and her own style to transmit them; her choices make her a writer instead of a propagandist, therefore, her work became the most remarkable one at that time.” (Goldblatt, 1985) Hulanhe Zhuan, the masterpiece of Xiao Hong, is ranked in the top 100 of Chinese novels in the 20th century by Asia Week.
Under the guidance of postcolonial translation theory, this thesis conducts a detailed study on the translation strategy in the translation of the English version of Hulanhe Zhuan. On the basis of the previous discussion of translation strategy on linguistic aspect and cultural aspect of the English version of Hulanhe Zhuan, a conclusion about its features, as well as its significance could be made as follows. The thesis, conducted from two dimensions, power differentials and hybridity, finds that the translation strategy of domestication and foreignization are not opposite to each other, but in a dialectical unity, or we may say that they form moderate hybridity. As a translator from strong culture, Goldblatt is more or less affected by the ideology of power differentials.
In the translation of words and expressions with Chinese characteristics, the translator has to consider the problem of functional equivalence. Generally, western readers who are not provided with sufficient information about the Chinese language and culture are not able to fully understand the translation. When a domesticating strategy is employed, the TL readers are inclined to believe that they are reading a book written by an English writer.
On the other hand, foreignization is employed when words and expressions about Chinese culture such as religion, folk customs, measure words etc. are to be translated. Religion and custom are marked characteristics of a nation. They signify a nation’s cultural identity. Goldblatt familiarizes the TL readers with the Chinese culture by maintaining Buddhism, Taoism and folk activities in the source text. Furthermore, the translation strategy of foreignization plays an important part in enriching the literary approaches and patterns, as well as the expressing techniques of a culture. Through foreignization is believed to make a translation transparent, reproduction of the translator to the source culture is reduced to the minimum.
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1.1 Research Background
Language, as a communicative intermediary, is delivery of thoughts, conveyor ofinformation, and carrier of culture. It has been playing an essential role in the processof human development. As the pace of economic globalization and internationalcultural exchange accelerates, foreign language has even more essential functionstoday. Commanding at least one foreign language has become an essential need formost people in order to survive and develop. In today's world, with the increasingfrequency of economic and cultural communication activities around the globe, publicdiplomacy has become an irresistible trend. People should have foreign languageskills so as to undertake intercultural communication missions. However,how peopleperform in international communication by using foreign language is,to a great extent,decided by a nation's foreign language Education policy.
A nation's foreign languageeducation policy is, nevertheless,closely connected with its national interest.Therefore, foreign language education policy matters vitally in the sense of not onlypersonal development to every individual but also strategic development to the nationas a whole.As the biggest developed country in the world, the United States experiencedmajor policy changes in its contemporary foreign language education. To illustrate, in1958, the U.S. Department of Education enacted ''National Defense Education Act'.
Itpromoted the education of 'New Three Skills” for the first time in history. Modemforeign languages was emphasized as well as natural science and mathematics for thepurpose of national defense. In 1983,the National Commission on Excellence inEducation presented “A Nation at Risk: An Imperative for Educational ReforrrT? Itproposed that the education on foreign languages should be attached great importanceto as much as it was attached to English and mathematics. This report opened a newera of foreign language education in the United States. In 1996,the American Councilon the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) proposed ''National Standards inForeign Language Education Project' and issued “Standards for Foreign LanguageLearning in the 21st Century'. This document put forward the “Five Cs' guidingtheory (Communication, Cultures, Connections, Comparisons and Communities),providing standards for foreign language learning in the upcoming century.
1.2 Significance of the Study
The research is of both theoretical and practical significance. Theoreticallyspeaking, the combing and reviewing of the major policy changes in contemporaryU.S. foreign language education could enrich the relevant theories of domesticresearch on the U.S. foreign language education. Practically speaking, the fruit of thisstudy could provide useful references for adjusting,enacting, and implementingforeign language education policies in China.
1.3 Purposes of the Study
The research purposes of this study are; 1. To review the major policy changes incontemporary U.S. foreign language education. 2. To analyze the characteristics andhistorical experience and lessons of the major policies changes in the U.S. foreignlanguage education. 3. To present possible recommendations for adjusting theenactment and implementation of foreign language education policies in China byusing the U.S. case as references.
This chapter reviews two main aspects which are not only necessary but alsofundamental for the following discussion of this study. First,the historical backgroundof the U.S. foreign language education policy changes will be reviewed. This providesa historical rationale for the specific policy changes in the U.S. foreign languageeducation. Secondly,previous studies on policy changes in contemporary U.S. foreignlanguage education will be reviewed. The literature review of this part is divided intotwo sections: studies in China and studies abroad.
2.1 Historical background of the Contemporary U.S. Foreign Language Education
To begin with, it is essential to take a review on the historical background of theU.S. foreign language education policy changes. Only when the historical backgroundis clearly known can it be better understood that how foreign language educationpolicies have been changing and what characteristics they have. Therefore, in thissection, the general historical background of both domestic and internationalsituations of the United States will be reviewed.
The time span of contemporaryhistorical background covers from 1945 till the present.From the perspective of world history, the cut-off point which demarcatescontemporary time from modem time is the end of the World War II. “The victory ofthe anti-fascist war is the triumph of human civilization against barbarousness. It isthis victory that demarcates the twentieth century into two dynastic histories: themodem time and the contemporary time' (Peng, 2007: 140).'The 1940's and 1950,s were characterized by shifting global political, economicand military alliances,resulting in both bipolarity and a spirit of internationalism'(“The History of Title VI and Fulbright-Hays', 2011: 1). While the situation gotintensified as the rivalry for the world hegemony spiced up in the 1960,s till the1980,s.
2.2 Previous Studies on the U.S. Foreign Language Education Policies
On the U.S. Foreign Language Education Policies,scholars from both home andabroad have done some researches in this regard. This section is to review the bothdomestic and international studies upon the U.S. foreign language education policies.Since the implementation of the Reform and Opening-up Policy, foreignlanguage education started booming in China. Meanwhile, domestic scholars startedto conduct researches on the U.S. foreign language education policies,trying to findout useful references to improve ours.
To generalize, the domestic study in this regardcan be classified into three categories: studies on the U.S. foreign language educationdevelopment history; studies on a certain U.S. foreign language education policy orpolicies of a certain period; and comparative studies on foreign language educationpolicies between the U.S. and China.As for studies on the U.S. foreign language education development history,Guo(1993) concludes that the postwar period from the late 1960’s till present is the timewhen the U.S. foreign language education has experienced a rejuvenation. By taking aretrospection of the past 50 years of the U.S. foreign language education developmentZhang (2012) points out that the U.S. foreign language education policies reveals itsnational consideration of national security.
This includes security in politics,economy,military and diplomacy. Xiao (1997) retrospects the policy changes in the postwar U.Sforeign language education and summarizes that the main trend is the increasingintervention and adjustment on foreign language education from the federalgovernment. Wu (2012) reviews the U.S. foreign language education policies sincethe 1950's and claims that after entering the twentieth century,foreign languagepolicies have been enacted by means of legislation. These policies have systemizedand diversified the U.S. foreign language education.
Chapter III methodology 17
3.1Subjects of the Study 17
3.2Methods of the Study 17
3.3Research Procedure 18
Chapter IV Discussions 20
4.1Policy Changes in Contemporary U.S. Foreign Language Education 20
4.2Characteristics of the U.S. Foreign Language Education Policies 47
4.3Historical Experience and Lessons of U.S. Foreign Language EducationPolicy Changes 54
4.3.1Historical experience 54
4.3.2Historical Lessons 55
Chapter V Conclusions 58
5.1A Summary of the Study 58
5.2Recommendations for Foreign Language Education Policy Adjustment inChina 59
5.3Limitations of the Study 67
5.4Concluding Statement 68
After reviewing both internal and external historical circumstances, this chapteraims to analyze the concrete policy changes in contemporary U.S. Foreign LanguageEducation. Then the author intends to discuss what the characteristics are and whathistorical experience and lessons can be drawn from them.
4.1 Policy Changes in Contemporary U.S. Foreign Language Education
In this section, the author focuses on the major policy changes in contemporaryU.S. foreign language education. During the past decades,there are all together fourmajor changes with three critical policies as the representative marks. They are: 'ANation at Risk: An Imperative for Educational Reform' released in 1983, 'NationalSecurity Education Acf^ presented in 1991 and “Defense Language TransformationRoadmap' released in 2005.
Therefore, in this section, these decades are divided intofour phases: from 1945 to 1982, from 1983 to 1990,from 1991 to 2004,and from2005 till the present. Key acts and documents during these periods will be elaboratelyreviewed and analyzed.As it is said previously in historical background review, the period from the endof the World War II to the beginning of the 1980's covers the first two stages of theCold War. Due to both domestic and international situation changes, the U.S.government has correspondingly made policy changes in its foreign languageeducation so as to cope with the changing scenario.
This thesis reviews the major policy changes in contemporary U.S. foreignlanguage education. Then characteristics of the policy changes are analyzed. Whatfollows is the analysis of its historical experience and lessons. Recommendations foradjusting foreign language education policies in China are proposed at last.The review part covers two main sections. First,historical background of theU.S. foreign language education policy changes is chronologically reviewed. It is toprovide a general background and historical rationale for the changes of foreignlanguage education policy. Second,previous studies on the U.S. foreign languageeducation policies are reviewed. In literature review,both domestic and internationalstudies of the U.S. foreign language education policies are reviewed.
The third chapter explains the methodology. Due to the nature of this research,the author lays out a qualitative research by adopting the methods of literature reviewanalysis, historical analysis, and comparative analysis. This study is conductedthrough procedures including text selection, text review, and text analysis.By reviewing and analyzing the concrete policies,four major policy changes aresummarized. They are: initial postwar rejuvenation stage before the 1980,s; rebounddevelopment stage during the 1980,s; rapid development stage of standard-basededucation during the 1990,s; and comprehensive development stage of nationalsecurity pivoted and culture considered education after 2000. Then, characteristics ofthe changes in contemporary U.S. foreign language education are summarized interms of ultimate goal, implementing means, vertical changing feature,and horizontalscope and internal dimension. Firstly, no matter how foreign language educationpolicies evolve,they aim at the same ultimate goal. That is to protect national securityand eventually serve for national interest.
The reference (omitted)
(如：Dr./Prof.C.Prager)及本门课程的编号或名称(如：English 734或British Novel)。打印时，如无特殊要求，每一行均需double space,即隔行打印，行距约为0.6cm(论文其他部分行距同此)。
英语论文提纲页包括论题句及提纲本身，其规范格式如下：先在第一行(与打印纸顶端的距离仍为2.5cm左右)的始端打上 Thesis 一词及冒号，空一格后再打论题句，回行时左边须与论题句的第一个字母上下对齐。主要纲目以大写罗马数字标出，次要纲目则依次用大写英文字母、阿拉伯数字和小写英文字母标出。各数字或字母后均为一句点，空出一格后再打该项内容的第一个字母;处于同一等级的纲目，其上下行左边必须对齐。需要注意的是，同等重要的纲目必须是两个以上，即：有Ⅰ应有Ⅱ，有A应有B,以此类推。如果英文论文提纲较长，需两页纸，则第二页须在右上角用小写罗马数字标出页码，即ii(第一页无需标页码)。
The divorce of Arnold's personal desire from his inheritance results in “the familiar picture of Victorian man alone in an alien universe”(Roper9)。
Whitman has proved himself an eminent democratic representative and precursor, and his “Democratic Vistas” is an admirable and characteristicdiatribe. And if one is sorry that in itWhitman is unable to conceive theextreme crises of society, one is certainthat no society would be tolerable whosescitizens could not find refreshment in itsbuoyant democratic idealism.(Chase 165)。
Dr.Beaman points out that“he [Charles Darw in] has been an important factor in the debate between evolutionary theory and biblical creationism”(9)。
Mary Shelley hated tyranny and“looked upon the poor as pathetic victims of the social system and upon the rich and highborn…with undisguised scorn and contempt…(Nitchie 43)。
Professor Chen Jia's A History of English Literature aimed to give Chinese readers”a historical survey of English literature from its earliest beginnings down to the 20thcentury“(Chen,121)。
圆括弧里的1为卷号，小写罗马数字i为页码，说明引文出自第1卷序言(引言、序言、导言等多使用小写的罗马数字标明页码)。此外，书名 A History of English Literature 下划了线;规范的格式是：书名，包括以成书形式出版的作品名(如《失乐园》)均需划线，或用斜体字;其他作品，如诗歌、散文、短篇小说等的标题则以双引号标出，如”To Autumn“及前面出现的”Democratic Vistas“等。
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